Wednesday, June 24, 2015

New Airport PPP Project at Bugesera, Rwanda

Since early 2000s, Rwandan economy has grown at an average of around 8 percent, much above the regional average. Per capita income has increased over three-fold, and regulatory norms have eased rapidly. In fact, according to Doing Business 2015, Rwanda is ranked 3rd in Sub-Saharan Africa, after Mauritius and South Africa, and 46th rank globally, in ease of doing business ranking.
Infrastructure Gap: However, the country continues to face huge infrastructure deficit in sectors such as road, railways and airports, among others. Even though development of the country is strongly driven by political willingness and mass participation, the country has limited resource base as well as technological gap, and limited expertise to keep in place necessary infrastructure.
International air transportation in Rwanda is limited to the Kigali International Airport (KIA), which has experienced significant growth in traffic across years. In 2010, KIA handled 14,766 aircraft movements including 11,174 passenger and combination aircraft, which transported 314,230 passengers and 6,352 metric tonnes of international cargo.  According to a Study by African Development Bank, medium-term growth of traffic volumes in Rwanda are estimated at about 1.3 million passengers, 15,500 tonnes of cargo and 17,712 aircraft movements per year by 2025. The current  infrastructure set up would not be able to support such massive growth, and need to adapt to growing demand and changing technology.
Identification of the Project: One of the projects which Rwanda has identified is a new airport at Bugesera District, which is located at around 40 kms away from Kigali city, the country’s capital.  The project cost is estimated at US$ 750 million.
The new airport at Bugesera will not only make Rwanda a world class gateway, but also provide the flexibility to expand and develop to become a key hub airport within the East Africa region, with higher handling capacity, both cargo and passengers.
Plan of Construction: Keeping in view Rwanda’s situation, this project could work best within a PPP framework. It could be developed under Build Own Operate Transfer (BOOT) Model, with a concession period of 30 years. The ownwership would be transferred back to GoR after the concession period.
Construction of the airport, under PPP framework would be in phases. Phase 1 would involve construction of passenger and cargo terminal buildings, 4.2 km long runway (which could even handle largest commercial aircrafts), airfield and other infrastructure to support the operation of an international airport, including air traffic control tower building and an airport rescue and fire fighting facilities, among others. Phase 2-4 would provide for further expansions with the ultimate phase involving the construction of additional runway and another passenger and cargo terminals.
Sources of fund (debt and equity) would be beyond GoR’s funds, and would, therefore,  include other stakeholders like airport operators, banks and other investor groups. GoR would acts as a shareholder / equity sponsor along with private parties in the Airport Company (Private Agency).
Risk Sharing: As regards risk sharing, project would be allocated to private entities as they are best equipped to manage those risks.  The Private Agency would be responsible for planning, project design including environmental and social impact assessments, quality control and assurance, and maintenance during the concession period. This would ensure long-term value-for-money (VFM) as appropriate risks are being transferred to the private sector over the life of the project – from design/ construction to operations/ maintenance. 

The cost incurred in airport development would be recovered through collection of user fees. User fees are decided based on user affordability, their willingness and public authority’s value for money requirement.
The Government of Rwanda (GoR) would ensure the following to make PPP work:
  • Land acquisition for construction of the new airport
  • 6 or 4-lane road infrastructure (Self financing Toll Expressway) from the new airport to Kigali city, and 4-lane road with other major township
  • Necessary legal frameworks safeguarding both pubic and private sector's interest
  • Close monitoring of implementation of projects by Private Agency as per agreements, and if necessary, with penalty

The key features of this proposed PPP, which also provide strong case for attracting private players, would include:
  • Strong Government's commitment and support for the development of aviation sector, ensuring political willingness and support in the PPP project
  • Law governing civil aviation sector in place, a strong case for legal and regulatory support
  • Continued growth in tourism, ensuring flow of revenue stream in the long run
  • Potential for increase in travel in the  region, and to emerge as regional aviation hub, catering to population base of over 153 million East Africa Community (EAC), as well as international tourism
  • Availability of aviation colleges for training airline staff
  • Creating employment opportunities for Rwanda citizens in the aviation industry
  • Conducive investment climate


African Development Bank Group, 2013, Rwanda Transport Sector – Review and Action Plan.
World Bank Group, 2014, Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency.

Friday, April 17, 2009


[He Article hi College Veng Young Mizo Association Silver Jubilee Souvenir Magazine, 2009 atana ziak a ni]

Mihringte’n kan nuna thil kan tawn tam takte hi, a pawimawhzia rilrua kan ngaihtuah hmain, hunin a her liampui leh mai thin. Kan chunga thil thleng te, kan thil tawnte, kan kianga cheng kan mihringpuite hian kan nunah hmun pawimawh tak an luah a, kawng hrang hrangin kan nunah danglamna an thlen thin. A hunlaia kan lo ngaihtuahzui vak ngai lohte kha han chhui kir hi chuan kan nunah an lo pawimawh hle a ni tih min hriatchhuahtir thin. Tin, tunhmaa kan thil lo tawn tawhte leh kan lo dawnsawn thin dante khan kan nunah awmzia nei thui hle bawk a ni. He thuziaka kan han thlurbing duh deuh chu, nuna danglamna thlentu, kan kianga chengte chungchang a ni a, ka lo tawn ve thenkhatte ka rawn tarlang dawn a ni.

Mi tam takin ka nunah nghawng pawimawh tak tak an nei tawh thin a, ka chhiar seng lo ang. Heti zawnga ka rilru ka sen chang hian mite nuna ka pawimawhna pawh a awm ve ngei ang tih min ngaihtuahtir thin. Chutiang bawkin, mitinte hian midangte nunah pawimawhna kan nei a, kan tawngkam leh chetzia te, a hunlaia kan nundan te leh kan chunga thil thleng kan dawnsawn dante chenin, kan kianga chengte nun a siamtha thei a ni.

Nu leh pate hi Beiseina min petu hmasa berte an ni

Mihringte nunah chuan beiseina hi a pawimawh em em mai a. Beiseina tel lo chuan hmasawnna kawnga pen khat pawh pen a harsa thin. Sikul ka kaltirh chuan Lower Primary school, Mizo medium ah ka nu leh paten Nursery ah min dah ve a. Kan zirlaite kha zir nuam ka ti a, thiante rualin classa zirtirtute zawhna te kha ka lo chhang ve thin a. Nimahsela, naupang zakzum ve tak ka nih avangin final exam hun a lo thlenin hotute min zawhna ka chhang ngam ta reng reng lo mai a, ka banah ‘F’ tih hi rawng senin kan zirtirtute chuan an ziak a, an thai bial a, min hawntir ta a. Pawl ka sawn dawn ve lo a ni tih ka hrethiam a, beidawng takin lungchhe vankaiin ka tap hawng ta ringawt mai a. In ka thlen chuan ka nu leh pate chuan min lo hnem a, English medium school ah kan dah ang che an ti a, ka tap pawh ka bang leh ta a. A kum lehah chuan Blue Mount School, McDonald Hills ah Nursery atangin bul ka tan tha leh ta a. Mizo schoola ka lo luh tawh avangin kan pawlah Mizo chhiar ka thiam ber a, nuam ka ti thei hle. Pawl li thleng he schoolah hian ka zir hnuin Mary Mount School, Tlangnuamah ka insawn ta a ni. Nursery ka failed lai khan ka nu leh paten beiseina min lo siamsak ta lo sela, tunah hian eng dinhmunah nge ka din ang le tiin ka inzawt thin.

Mitinin an nunah harsatna an tawh theuh a rinawm. Harsatna tawh dan pawh a inang lo ang. Kan harsatna tawh dan kha ka ngaihtuah letin naupanlai thil mah ni se a pawimawh hlein ka hria a. Lehkha kan zir theihna turin ka nu leh paten theihpatawpa tangin neihthinglungkhawng tak meuh meuhin lehkha kan zirna tur atan an inhmang zo thin a. Sap sikulah kan unauzain kan kal a, chutih hunlai chuan kan chhungkuain kan harsat phah em em mai a. Ka pa hlawh kan kham loh chang a lo awm a, ka nu pawh sumdawnga a chhuah a ngai thin a. Hmun hla tak takah bungraw laa a kal a ngai thin. Kan mamawh hi chhung inkhawmnaa ka pain Pathian hnena a dil hi ka hre ngun hle a ni. Mamawh leh harsatna kan neih changa ka hriatchhuah theih chhun chu ka nu leh pate tawngtaina leh kan sitting rooma family Bible kan dah thin kha a ni mai. Tawngtai min zirtir a, Pathianah lo chuan khawvelah hian beiseina a awm lo a ni tih min hriattir thin a, kan mamawh chhanna a ni tih min zirtir nan tawngtaiin a hnenah an thlen thin a ni.

Tum khat chu Aizawlah BMX cycle hi an uar thar a, thiante chuan an han lei sap sap a. Kei pawh chuan thiante tihdan angin ka nu leh pate hnenah ka ngen ve a. Nimahsela, ka thianten cycle an neih sup sup pawhin kan zirna tur atana dah hran a ngaih avangin, ka nu leh paten min leisak ve thei lo. Tap mah ila a sawt lo. Tun hnua ngaihtuah let lehin kan nu leh pate thiamna lama an rual awhna kha a lo hlu ber a lo ni! Khami tum khan ka thil duhzawng kha min pe ta sela, ka atchilh ve ngei ang a, pawl sawn khawpin ka inzir puitling kher lo maithei a ni!

School Zirtirtute pawimawhzia

Schoola zirtirtute thusawi hi kan ngai pawimawhin kan lo hre rei thei khawp mai. Kan teacher pakhat geography min zirtir pawh a karlaklawhah thawhthuin a chhunzawm daih mai thin a, ngaihtuah let leh pawh tum ila thawnthua a luh dawn thleng kha chu ka hrechhuak ve thin a. Amah kha kawm nuam kan ti a, mahse a subject lakah khan tumah kan tui hauh lo ni berin ka hria. Khami tum pawh khan economics teacher tha tak kha chu nei lo ila chu Social Science (Economics & Geoography) ah khan ka failed ve ngei ang.

Ka la hriat reng chu pawl sawm kan passed tumin result a that ve em avangin college thlang thei dinhmunah dingin kan inhre ve a, thiante nen phaia lehkha zir ve kan duh ta a. Chumi tuma ka college thlan ber kher chu kan chhungkaw sum neihina a tlin chi a ni lo. Ka nu leh pate pawhin min tihpuitlinsak an chak hle a, mahse kan tlin ngang lo a ni tih chu kan hre theuh a. Tawngtainaah pawh a thlen nasa a ni. Hemi tum hian ka school luhna, St.Paul’s High School atanga result ka lak tumin kan headmaster Brother Thomas ka va hmu a, ka college kal duhna te hrilhin a ngaihdante ka zawt a. Chumi tuma a mi chhanna chu kan chhungkaw tan malsawma a ni ta a ni. Ani chu a ngawi vang vang a, kan chhungkaw dinhmun a ngaihtuah tel a ni ngei ang. “St. Edmund’s College, Shillong ah lut rawh. College tha tak a ni a. I tan ka duhsak khawp mai che”, a ti ta a. “Admission i hmuh ngei pawh ka ring. An Principal hnenah ka recommend-na che lehkha ka kentir ang che ang a, i pe dawn nia,” a ti zui a. A ziak ta sawk sawk a, lehkha chu min pe ta nghal mai a. Chumi tuma Brother Thomas a chunga ka lawmzia chu! Admission tih dawn erawh chuan thianten Principal ngaihdan a ni lo palh ang e tia min hrilh avangin lehkha chu ka pe ta lo va. Chumi kum vek chuan St.Edmund’s College ah chuan ka lut ve ta a ni. Kan principal hian zirlaite chhungkaw economic dinhmuh en chungin kan tlin theih tur College tha berte zinga mi min kawhhmuh thei nghal kha a student te chunga a inpekna a lang chiang hle a ni.

Mary Mount School kan kal laiin kan zirtirtu pakhat Pu C. Darlianthanga hian Hindi leh Mizo subject a la thin a. Zirlai bakah thil dang tam tak kan hriat tur atana pawimawh nia a hriatte a sawi thin a. Nu leh pate leh upaten an sawi zen zen loh sawi a ngah khawp mai. Han ngaihtuah mai chuan sawi awm loh tak mipat hmeichhiatna atanga mawng sil dan thlengin zuk sawi thleng a! Kan hriat atana pawimawh nia a hriat chu a sawi hreh ngai lo. Pu Dara khan zirlaite a phak tawkah educate a tum thin a ni. Khatiang ang zirtirtute zinga kan nei thin kha a lawmawm teh e.

St. Paul’s High Schoola pawl kua kan zir laiin Mathematics min zirtirtu pakhat Pu Simon-a chuan a zirtirte hian chhiarkawp kan man lo ang tih hlauvin a hrethiam ban min phartir a, blackboard ah Mizo tawng nena sawi fiahin class hmaah min chawhchhuahtir thin. Tum engemawzat ka ding chhuak ve hman a. Chutia thiante pui theia awm chu nuam ka ti khawp mai a, kan zir apiang chu in ka thlen velehah ka chawk chhuak leh vek thin. Pawl kua leh pawl sawm kan zir chhungin thiante nen maths zirlaibua zawhna awm thei ang zawng zawng kha chu kan chawk chhuak hman vek a ni. Pu Simona te ang zirtirtu tha kha zirlaite tan an lo hlu hle mai.

Sunday School Zirtirtute– Nunkawng dik min kawhhmuhtute

Hman deuh lawk khan Mumbaiah naupang puala Sunday School neih ve rawt a ni a. A tha ka ti hle mai a. Naupang tlemte pawh awm sela, Sunday school hi chu an tan a pawimawh dawn em avangin kan neih loh kumte kha ka uipui leh hnuhnawh a. Chu chuan kan tet ve deuh lai min hriatchhuahtir a. Beginner, Primary, Junior, Intermediate leh Senior-a kan zir zawng zawngte kha a lo pawimawhzia ka ngaihtuah a. Naupang Davida te, Josepha te, Samuela te, leh Bible a mi ropui chanchin kan zirte, kan chhuan em em thinte kha kan lo puitlin hnuah pawh rinna kawnga kan entawn tur atan an lo pawimawh em em mai a lo ni. Thahnemngai taka Sunday School Zirtirtuten min lo zirtir thinte kha a lo hlu hle mai. An thil min zirtirte kha chhia leh tha hriatna fim taka hmanga Pathian tih chunga kan nun kan hman theihna turin lungphum pawimawh tak a lo ni reng mai a lo ni. A pawhmawh hle mai!

Thian kawmte– Nun Kawng Peng Thuamah

Thian kawmte hian kan kawng zawh tur thlengin a nghawng thei a ni. Khawlaiah emaw, hnathawhnaah emawa kan thian kawm thinte bula kan thil tih thin thenkhatte Biakina kan rawngbawlpuite kianga kan tih duh loh tur a tam mai. Hei hian thian kawm fimkhur a pawimawhzia a tilang chiang hle. Kan nunkawng a her dikin a her dik lo ve thei tlat a ni. Thian thate hi malsawmna an ni a. Kan hriatloh lai pawha Pathian lam kan pan zel theihna tura hmanraw pawimawh an ni thei a ni.

Sunday school kan kala Senior pawl kan nihin thiante ka chhar thar a. Chung zingah chuan tun thlenga ka la kawm bik deuhte chu Mavida leh Romawia te an ni. Chawlhni tlai khat chu thalai inkhawmaa tel ve turin min sawm a, chu chu ka tel ve hmasakna ber a ni a. Chumi ni chuan thalai inkhawm zawng zawng khan hla kan zir a, Kohhran zaipawl member ka lo ni ve ta reng mai a. Solfa note chhiar thiam loh avanga inthlahrung kha ka zaipuite zingah thiam lo fe fe an lo awm ve bawk a. Zawi zawiin inthlahrung lo takin ka inzir ve ta a. A hnu lawkah Mizoram Gospel Centenary a lo thleng leh a. Hla zirin kan camp lut ve ta a. A kum hmasa lawka zan tlai thleng thlenga thiante nena khawlaia leng kual vak vak thin khan hlapui kan rem ve ta reng mai a ni! Pathian hminga inpawlkhawmnaa tel tam na na na chuan kawng dik lam pawh kan zawh phah a lo ni. Khatih hunlai khan thalai inkhawmnaa min sawmtu leh min kawhhmuhtu thian thate kha awm ta lo sela, tun hunah hian eng kawng nge ka zawh ang tih ka ngaihtuah thin.

Mahni Dinhmun Hriat

Reserve Bank of India a ka thawh laiin kan Bank hian VIP a mikhual changin, anmahni lo kaihruaih leh lo buaipui hi ka kutah an dah thin a. Tum khat chu Dr. Raghuram Rajan, IMF Economic Counsellor and Director (Chief Economist) a mikhual a. Amah lo kaihruai turin kei chu Liaison Officer-ah min ruat leh a. Kan Bank a thu a sawi zawh chuan Indian Marchant Chambers ah thusawina a nei leh dawn a. Tawiawm turin min sawm avangin ka zui phei a. Chumi tuma a thusawi zo chu amah han kawm tuma bawrtute an tam viau mai a, zirlaite lah chuan a lehkhabu ziak an lo leiah te chuan a autograph an lo dil buai bawk a, a indaih lo ema ka hriat avangin a bag chu ka lo khaisak mai ang che, tiin ka va bia a. Ani chuan engdanga min chhang lovin, “Mr.Fanai, ka bag khai hi zawng i hna a ni love”, tiin min chhang ta mai a. A tirah chuan mak ka ti angreng a. Mahse, ka ngaihtuah chiang a, kha chhanna kha a pawimawhzia ka hrechhuak ta a. A bag khaisak kha ka hna a ni lo reng a ni. Meeting pawimawhah te amah tawiawm a, a tul anga thil kawhhmuh tura Liaison Officer atana ruat ka ni a. Chu chu ka hna a ni. Mahni hna tur dik tak hriat chian zel hi zahawmna a lo va ni em tiin ka ngaihtuah ta a ni.

Tum khat chu Bank of England Governor, Dr. Marvyn King hi kan mikhual leh a. Kan hotute chuan ka kutah bawk an dah leh a. Ka thian hnamdang hovin an hlauh ang loh takin a lo nelawm phian mai a, fiamthu pawh a lo duh hle mai a. Reilote chhungin kan inkawmngeih ta khawp mai a. Tum khat chu, “Reserve Bank ah hian thawk zel la, Dr. Rakesh Mohan te ang hian Deputy Governor line ah chhoh i tum em ni?” min ti ta phut mai a. Ka rilru pawha ka lo suangtuah ngai loh a ni. A hnenah chuan, “Pathianin rem a tihte chuan kan nih hunte pawh a lo la thleng ve ang chu,” ka lo ti a. Chu chuan ngaihtuahna a ti thui hle mai. Kan phak loh nia kan ngaih tur ang chi hi a awm tur a ni lo. Kan ram hruaitu liante, mi lar tak takte pawh keimahni ang thova Nursery, KG, Class-1 zir chho ve thote an ni. An thlen theih chu kan thleng thei ve tho a ni tih min ngaihtuahtir ta a ni.


Sawi zel dawn ila kan sawi seng lo ang. Pawimawh nia ka hriat thin chu, kan nuna danglamna thlentute kan chhiar thiam a, an hlutna kan hriat thiam hi a ni. Chu chuan keimahni ngei pawh mi nuna kan pawimawhzia min hriattir thei ang a, mawhphurhna thar min siamsakin, keimahni leh kan kianga awmte nen inkungkaihna tha zawk a din chho zel dawn a lo ni.

Sunday, August 24, 2008

India Ram Hmun leh Ram Danga Hna Zawn Kawnga Mizo Thalaite Chungchang (Challenge)

[He article hi nikum 2007, October thlaa ka ziak a ni a, Chhinlung Magazine 2006-07, Vol.XVIII, Bangalore Mizo Association publication ah chhuah a ni]


A hmasain Chhinlung Magazine-a thu ziak tura min sawm avangin Chhinlung Editorial Board chungah lawmthu ka sawi a ni. Tuna kan thupui hi engti zawnga han khel tur nge ni ang tiin tun hma lama la tarlan lohte hriat tumin Chhinlung Magazine chhuak hmasate ka en kual nual a. Zoram chhung leh Zoram pawn lama Mizote tana hna thawh tur awm chi kawhhmuhna te, phai lama zirlaite dinhmun te Issue hmasa lamahte tarlan a ni tawh a. Tin, ram pawna eizawnna kawng hrang hrang han sawi dawn ila tun hnai lawka R.L.Rinawma lehkhabu ziak - Thalaite Hmasawn Nan: Career leh Zirna – tihah chipchiar takin tarlan a ni tawh a. Chung lam chu sawi ngai tawh lo turah dah ila. He thupui hnuaia tarlan kan tum ber tur chu Mizo thalaite hian Zoram chhung mai ni lo, State dangah te emaw, India ram pawnah emaw hna zawnga kan chhuah a hun tawh a, chutiang tur chuan kan thiamnate kan tuaihriam a pawimawh a ni tih hi a ni.

Midangten an theih chu keini tan pawh a harsa lo

India ram State dangte hnu feah literary centenary kan han lawm ve meuh khan India ram State dangte zingah Mizoram chu ziak leh chhiarah pahnihna kan ni pha daih mai kha Mizote tan chuan inchhuanna tham a ni. Tin, infiamna lamahte pawh India ram chhung mai ni lovin khawvelah pawh mi hlawhtling kan nei ta nual mai. Central Sawrkarah pawh hna sang tak tak chelh phak kan ram atangin an awm nual bawk. Mizoram chhung mai ni lo India rama university tha tak takah te, Sap rama university-ah te pawh Mizo Professor/Lecturer chhuanawm tak tak kan nei nual bawk. Professional line-ah pawh Mizo a hmei a pain mi rawn tlak tak tak khawvel hmun hrang hrangah an inphum nuk mai bawk a ni. Heta tang hian midangte pawhin an theih chu keini Mizote pawhin kan thei ve tho a ni tih chiang takin kan hmu a ni.

Ram pawna hna zawn

Chutihlaiin, hetah hian lungawi tawka tawp mai lovin kawng hrang hrangah hma kan sawn zel hi a pawimawh em em a ni. Hmasawnna kawnga Mizo-te min tithuanawptu te zinga pakhat chu ram pawna hna zawn kan harsat thin hi a ni. Lehkhathiam nia chhiar theih hna mumal nei lo tam tak kan neihte hi hnam dang kara hna zawn an hreh tlat thin. Kan ramah hnam dang ten min chiahpiah ve loh avang hian hnam dang karah kan zumin kan inkiltawih phah thin ni tein a lang. A lehlamah chuan, Mizote hian hna zawn lamah hian thahnem kan ngai tak tak thin lovem ni tih zawhnate pawh a awm thei bawk. He article hian Mizo thalai lehkhathiamte hna zawn kawnga Zoram pawn lama hna thawk tura a cho chhuak thei a nih chuan kan thil tumah hlawhtlingah kan inngai thei ang.

Hna zawn kawngah enge kan dinhmun?

Hna chungchanga kan dinhmun chu hetiang hian kan sawi thei ang: Mizoram chhungah kan thalai lehkha thiam hna nei lo an pung tual tual a. Kalna tur hre lovin hna nghak ringawtin an awm a ni. Hna ruak tlemte awm chhunah pawh thiamna ai mahin duhsaknain hmun a chang sang thin avangin mithiam takte pawhin an hnathawh tur ang an hmuh loh phah thin. Tin, degree sang tak neite pawhin hna a awm loh avangin mi ai te an kal chang a awm a, College lecturer ni thei rengten nghet lovin private school-ah te an zirtir tak mai mai te pawh a awm bawk. Engineering graduate high school teachera lutte pawh kan nei ta fur mai. Hmun dangah hna tha leh sang zawk an chelh theih laiin kan ram chhungah chuan kan mithiam ten an thawh tur ang hna an thawk phak lova ni. Hetiang ang dinhmun atanga thlir chuan kan mithiamte tan chuan ram chhungah aiin ram pawn lamah hna zawn a hlawk zawk dawn niin a lang.

Tin, phai rama lehkha zirte pawh eizawnna kawngah kawhhmuhtu tha an neih loh avangin zirlai zirchhuak engemawzat hna thawh tur nei lovin an awm bawk a. A tlangpuiin, heng ram pawn [1] khawpui liana kan zirlai awmte hian an zir zawhin Zoram chhung lama hna zawng turin an hawng leh mai thin a. Kumtinin hna hmu lo pungkhawm titamtu mai an ni thin.

Chutih laiin kan lehkhathiamte hian Mizoram sawrkar belh an tum ber a. Nimahsela, Mizoram sawrkar hnuaia Department tinah an indaih em em tawh mai a, a thawkte an chuang rui tawh mai bawk a. Chhut dan phei chuan service pawimawh zual thenkhat tih lohah chuan ‘kum 10 chhung chu mi thar lak belh miah loh pawhin Zoram sawrkar hnuaia Department hrang hrangte khi buai miah lovin an kal thei em em tawh a ni’ [2]. Innghahna awm deuha ngaihte chu centrally sponsored scheme, contract basis a lo lutte khi a ni deuh mai a ni.

Chawmhlawm nih hnua hna nghaka thut reng

A chunga kan han tarlan tak ang khian ram chhunga hna nghaka thut reng mai hian lukhawng a nei thui vak dawnin a lang lo a ni. Chuvangin chet chhuah thuai a ngai a ni. Bachelor/Master degree kan zawh thlengin a tlangpuiin kum 17/19 lehkha kan zir chhungin kan chhungten min chawm a. Heng degree neih hnu hi chuan hna zahawm tawk tak hmu turin a inpuahchah theih tawh a ni. Tin, chung bakah chuan job-oriented course te pawh a lak chhunzawm theih bawk. Kum hnih/khat zir belha hna belh tlak hmuh theih chuan duhthusam a ni. Kan tum chu ‘chawmhlawm’ atanga ‘thawkchhuaktu’ nih a ni.

Hemi tihlawhtling tur chuan kan rilru puthmang kan siksawi hmasak a pawimawh khawp mai. Mizote hi kan ngaihsam thin. He zia hi thlauhthlak daih a tha khawp mai. Thatchhiatna bul a ni a, kawng engkimah hmasawnna daltu a ni thei. Zirna a ni emaw, hna zawn kawng a ni emaw, kawng engkimah kan thiltih apiangah thil te lua a awm lo tih hriain a hming chauha ti mai mai lova rilru leh tihtak zeta tih kan zir a ngai khawp mai. Kan thil tih leh tawn apiang hi ‘level’ sang zawka min hlangkaitu a ni thei. Chuvangin, kawng tinrengah tih hram hram kan peih a ngai a, taihmak kan chhuah a ngai bawk a ni.

Tin, bul tan hma a pawimawh hle. Phai lama zirlai zirna sang zawk bei mekte tan chuan Zoram lama hna nghaka awm tum mai lovin India ram khawpui lianah inbah tanna tur hna dap a ngai tawh a ni. Tin, Mizoram lama kan lehkhathiam hna nghak mekte pawh State pawn lamah hna thawh tur i han dap teh ang u. Hna chungchanga biak rawn tur mamawhte tan India ram khawpui hrang hranga kan officer liante an inhawng em em zel a ni. Level hrang hrangah hna dil tur a awm a, tha taka prepare chuan a khawi hna pawh tlin theih loh tur a awm chuang lo a ni.

Hna zawn kawnga State thenkhatte dinhmun

Hmun danga hna zawn chungchangah State dangte chanchin i han thlir chhin teh ang. Kerala ram hi ziak leh chhiar thiam tam lama kan chunga leng awm chhun an ni. An ramah pawh hian hna an indaih tawh lovin hna hmuh a har hle mai a, tunah hian an employment exchange ah pawh thalai hna hmu lo ringawt Mizoram mipui let nga dawn lai an awm a ni. Chutih laiin hna zawn kawngah chuan Kerala ram mite hi an entawntlak hle. India ram hmun hrang hrangah hna zawngin an kal chhuak a, field hrang hrangah hna tha tak tak an vuan mek a ni. India ram pawn lamahte pawh hna zawngin an chhuak nasa a, tum kum 30 kalta atang khan vawiin thleng hian Gulf ram atanga Kerala mi hnathawka awmte sum rawn lut ringawt pawhin India ram economy hi a khawih che phak hial a ni.

Thiamna lama mite aia hnufual nia inngaite tan pawh kawng a kaw tha em em a. State dangtena an nuihzat thin em em Bihari ho atang hian thil pawimawh tak kan zir thei ang. An zingah sap tawng thiam lo tak tak, hratlak avanga zirna lama thui tak thleng leh hna tha tak tak thawk ta te an awm teuh a ni. An taima em em mai a, hna tenau deuh nia kan ngaih atangin hna lian leh zahawm thlengin dilna an thehlut a, exam an ziak an ziak mai a ni. A tawpah chuan an hlawhtlin hun a lo awm nge nge thin. An hna hmuh ang ang kha an zawm mai a, hna tha zawk leh sang zawka luh tumin an bei chhunzawm leh mai thin a ni. Sawrkarah te private organisation-ah te level hrang hrangah Bihari ho hi hmuh tur an awm nuk mai a ni.

India ram hmarchhak State-te zingah chuan Manipur khi State chhunga hna hmuh lamah chuan beisei awm loh berte zinga mi a ni thei hial ang; hna tha deuh duh chuan suma lei a ngai hial thin nia sawi a ni. State chhung-ah buaina a awm bawk nen anmahni ngei pawhin an State pawn lamah hna zawngin an chhuak thin a. Tunah chuan Manipur State a hnam hrang hrang awmte khi India ram hmun hrang hrangah hna hrang hrang vuanin an awm fur tawh mai bawk a ni. An State dinhmun an hriat chian em avangin hmun dangah tihtakzetin hna an zawng mai a ni.

Hna duhzawng thlan

Inbah tanna ngaihtuah hmasa lova hna duh san viau hian miin a chhiatphah duh hle. Tum tihsan viau si nen, eng hna mah vuan mang si lova then then hi thil awm duh em em mai a ni a. Chuvangin, hna tenau deuh zawkte pawh ni se, mahni intodelh vea zawm ve phawt mai hi a inhmakhuana pakhat a ni thei. Miin a tum san phawt chuan a thlen san lohna chhan tur a awm lo. Nimahsela, chumi atana a intuai hriam leh a tih ve tang tang a ngai thin. Mi a taihmak phawt chuan rah tha seng tur a chham lovang.

Ram pawna hnathawkte enge kan tangkaina tur?

Ram pawna hnathawkte hi kan ramin a chhuanvawr leh hmasawnna kawnga sulsutu pawimawh tak kan ni thei a ni. A hmasa berin midangte rinchhana awm thin mahni kea dinga kan intodelh ve thei hi hmasawnna pakhat chu a ni. Tin, kan ram hian ‘human capital’ a mamawh em em a. Mahni thawhna field theuhah mithiam chhawr tlakah inchher chhuakin nakin atan kan ram tan kan tangkai thei a ni. Tin, zirlai zir mekte pawhin an zirna field-ah midangte rawn tlak khawpa thiam a ngai a ni. Tunlai chhanah ‘engkim a then then hre zel zul’ (‘Jack of all trade’) tan hmun a awm tawh lo.Khawi hmunah pawh mithiamte zawhna dawn hmasak ber chu “Enge i area of specialisation?” tih zel a ni. Miten engkim hre turin mi an beisei lo, nimahsela mahni thiamna mualah erawh chuan hre hle turin an beisei thin. Chuvangin, rawn tlak khawpa thiam a pawimawh a ni. Tin, kan ram economy dinhmun chhe tak tungding tur hian thalaite hian keimahni dinhmun kan sawh ngheh ve phawt a tul a ni tih kan hriat nawn leh a pawimawh ang. Chungte chu chu mimal anga kan hlawkpui tur leh ram anga hma kan sawnna kailawn pawimawh tak a ni thei bawk a ni.

End notes:
[1] Ram pawn leh phai ram tih hian India ram chhunga State dang zawngte a huam. India ram pawn sawi nan chuan ‘India ram pawn’ tiha sawi thin a ni ang.
[2]Pu Khuangkunga, Liaison Officer, Mumbai Mizoram House.

Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Pathian hnena chawlhna!

Nizan dar 9:50 vel khan ka nu nuta neih chhun ka Pu Mawia chuan kum 78 mi niin chatuan ram min pansan ta a. Chutichuan, ka nute unau pasarih te zinga palite chu Pathian hnenah an lo chawl ta a, an unau zinga naupang ber ka nu leh ka nu Sangi shillong a mi chauh an dam ta. Unau pali kan ni a, state hran theuhah kan awm a, kan inngai em em mai a. Kan inphone reng mai a. ka nute unau hnih chauh awm tawh khawhar dan tur ka ngaihtuah hian ka lainat hle mai. Thla hmasa April 2, 2008 khan ka pa farnu neih chhun ka ni Lawmi'n South Vanlaiphaiah min boralsan tawh bawk a. Ani pawh kum 78 vel bawr tho a ni. Ka pate unau chu panga an ni thung a, ka pa nen pathum chu Pathian hnenah an chawl ve tawh bawk a ni. Ka ni leh ka pute ruang hi ka hmu hman lo ve ve a ni. Phai rama hnathawkte vanduaina pakhat chu hetiang hunah hian a ni. Hna avang leh kar hlat lutuk avangin a hawn ve zung zung theih loh a ni. A thla zawn zawna ka ni leh ka pute an kal ta mai hi a khawharthlak hle a ni. Zanin pawh ka mut a chhuak lova, Gospel hlate ka ngaithla a, ka tlaivar titih chu a ni ta mai a. Tuna ka ziak lai pawh hian Aizawl chu han phone ila inlengte zai thawm leh ka chhungte lusun tap thawm ka hre thei ngei ang. Engpawh ni se, ka pu a kal ta tih thu a fapa Pute Thlana, Missionary hnen atanga ka hriat veleh ka thianpa Dr.Andrew ka bula awm mek nen Pathian hnena tawngtaina tawite kan hmang a, he khawvela ka pu nun a lo hruaina zawng zawngah Pathian hnenah lawmthu kan sawi a, a hnenah chawlhna nuam taka awm reng tawh tura a hruai tak avangin lawmthu kan sawi bawk a. Ka pa Pathian hnena a chawlh hnu khan Pathianin ka nunah leh ka unaute nunah nasa takin hna a thawk a, min hruai nasa hle a ni tih tun hnuah ka hrechhuak a, ka pu tu leh fate pawh hian Pathian hruaina an chan nakin hnuah an la hrechhuak ve ngei ang.

Ka pu hi a zual tih kan hriat veleh kar hmasa May 21 khan Mumbai atangin ka nu in Aizawl lam panin a thlawk chho nghal a, a ni la lain a thleng a. Hemi ni hian ka nu bungraw excess avangin airport ah kan buai em em mai a, flight an miss lek lek a, Pathian khawngaihna azarah minute 15 vel a la awm tihin an lut thei ta a. An nuta neih chhun, an unau zinga upa ber ni bawk, chu a hmuh hman loh ka hlau em em mai a, a hmu hman mai pawh ni lovin Pathian thute an sawi ho hman a, riahchilhin a enkawl hman bawk a ni tih ka hriatin Pathian khawngaihna a nasain a ropui ka ti a. Ka nu hian ka pa kha khum beta a nat chhung zawng, kum hnih dawn lai, a kal ni thleng khan a enkawl a, zana a tlaivar zak zak chang a tam hle. Ka pa kal hnu lawk a Aizawl ka chhoh meuh kha chuan ka nu hriselna pawh a lo tla dawkin ka hria a.

Ka pa, F.K. Rohlira, kha slipped disk natna nia kan ngaih avanga hun rei tak khum beta a awm hnuin December 2001 khan Guwahati ah kan kalpui ta a, doctor te chuan in rawn kal tlai lutuk rei a daih tawh dawn lo, hruai hawng leh mai rawh u, min ti ta mai a. Thla thum aia a dam rei an ring tawh lova, nimahsela Pathian khawngaihna avangin August thla thleng chu min dampui leh ta a. Slipped disk awzawng a lo ni lova, chuap cancer a lo ni reng mai a, Aizawl lamah khan an lo detect ngai reng reng lo a lo ni. Zuk leh hmuam ti ngai reng reng lo, rawlthar tirh atang renga Pathian rawngbawl thin a ni a, chutiang natna a nei ta mai chu a mak pawh kan ti a, awih harsa pawh kan ti. Chumi tum Aizawl pan tura kan zinkawng tluka rei ka tih kha a la awm ngai lovang. Shillong ah ka nu u Nu Sangi te inah kan chawl chho phawt a. Ni khat a liam apiang khan rilru a mangang a ni ber mai.

Hun a liam beuh beuh a, JNU, Delhi a research kum tawpna a ni tawh bawk nen dissertation ziak turin ka chhuk leh ta phawt mai a. Mahse, hma ka sawn thei ta der lo mai a. Chutih laiin RBI hna dila ka exam naah ka tling a, interview tura kohna ka dawng ta a. Chumi lamah chuan ka rilru ka pe ta zawk a. A chang chuan hawn maite ka duh a, ka nu leh paten an remti der mai si lo va. Delhi ah ka awm laiin ka pa phei chuan phone ah min thlah fel der tawh a. Ka lo kal ta a nih pawhin Pathian hnenah ka chawl mai ang a, i rawn hawn buai pawh a ngai lovang. In unau lo inhmangaih ula, i nu hi duat takin lo enkawl ang che u, tiin phone ah min hrilh a. Mumang a ang duh hle thin. Kum 2002 a ka birthday zan chuan ka pa ka han phone leh a, phone ah min tawngtaisak turin ka ngen ta ngawt mai a. Ka thil ngenah chuan ka inchhir loh ber tum a ni.

Mumbai pana Delhi ka chhuahsan hma vel khan a zual a, ka u phei chuan i rawn hawn loh chuan i hmu hman lovang a ti thin. Ka nu ka rawn a, ani chuan i pain Mumbaia i hna zuk zawm zet la i rawn hawng dawn nia a ti, tiin min lo hrilh leh bawk si a. Mumbai panin ka kal ta a. August 5, 2002 a hna ka zawm zanin kan in ka han phone a, ka nu chuan i pa pawhin i hna zawm a hria a lawm hle mai, tiin min lo hrilh a. I pa hi i be duh em, mahse a chau deuh a, a ti a. Kei chuan chawl hahdam sela naktuk lamah ka rawn be mai ang, ka ti a. Nimahsela, khami tum khan hun kan kutah a awm lohzia ka hrechiang lehzual. A tuk zingah ka pa chu Pathianin a hnena awm tawh turin a lo hruai ta zawk a ni. A kal hmain ka nu leh unauten an kil laih a, fel takin an inthlah a ni. A kal hun tur a duhthusam ngei zing karah Pathianin a hruai ta a ni. Chu mai ni lovin Pathian pawhin hna ka zawm fel a hriat hma chu ka pa kha kan kiangah a la awmtir a ni. Pathian remruatna felzia chu a ropui teh e.

Ka pa kal ni hian tumahin min rawn be tlang thei si lova, mobile phone ka la nei lo bawk nen. Office lah a thar a ni bawk si a, department lah a lianin ka awmna chin an hre lo a ni ber mai. Chhunah thlahna hunserh te an lo hmang vek tawh a. Chutihlai te pawh chuan a kal chungchang ka la hriat loh thute an sawi a ni awm e. Hemi ni hian Aizawl hawn theih dan tur ngawt buaipuiin Administration lamah ka lo buai nileng a, Aizawl lam phone nachang pawh ka lo hre lo a ni. A zanah chuan office atanga ka hawn hnuin kan thian Liani te unau leh thiante Bible nen hian ka quarterah an rawn lut rup mai a. Maruat, hei prayer service te nei ho ila kan ti a, an ti mai a, ka lo lawm viau mai a. Ka insiam sawk sawk a. Rinloh takin inkhawmnaah chuan ka pa chungchang min hrilh ta mai a. Tlai lamah an hre tawh a, mahse office ah chuan min lo hrilh duh lo a lo ni a. Zana min hrilh atan an lo khek zawk a ni. Office chu ni sela hrilhhai takin ka awm dawn a ni a. Chumi tum chuan ka thiante ho kaltlanga a remruatna fel tak avangin Pathian hnenah lawmthu ka sawi a ni.

Ka pa khan Pathian hnena chawlh a lo chak tawh em em mai a. Naupang te a nih laiin a kaih vak tawh a, a mar an hmu zo tawh lova, chutihlai chuan ani chu hmun eng nuam em em mai pan hian a lo kal a, chu hmun a thlen hma chuan tuemaw hian a lo bia a, i kir leh a ngai, khulamah an la mamawh che a ni tiin a lo hrilh a. A hawi thlak chuan a ruang chuangah hian mi pakhat hi a lo tawngtai mek a zuk hmu thei a. A harh ta hlawl mai a. A lo puitlin chhoh hnu a Pathian pawlna a chan hnuah chu hmun nuam awmzia chu a hrechiang lehzual a, chutah chuan kal a thlahlel thin a ni. A kal hma pawh hian kan bialtu Pastor Khuma hnenah a damna tura tawngtai a phal tawh lo. Nang hi chuan ka damna turin mi tawngtai sak tawh lo la, Lalpa hnena kal ka duh tawh a ni a lo ti a. Delhi-a ka awm laiin chutiang chiah chuan min hrilh bawk a. Pate damna tura tawngtai theih loh tawp mai chu ka nuna ka thil commit hrehawm ber a la ni hial ang. A tan ka dilsak a, a damna erawh ka chham tel ngai ta lo a ni. Tunah chuan a rawng a lo bawl thin a Lalpa kiangah a chawl ta a, ka nite nen ka pute ho nen Beramno fakna hla mawi an sa ho ngei ang!

Ka pa hla duh em em mai, a sermon ka ngaihthlak hnuhnung ber 'Lalpa Lungawi Kum' a sawi tum pawha a thlan 'Mal Min Sawm Turin' tih hi kan sak apiangin ka pa ka hrechhuak thin a, pulpit tlanga mittui tla zawih zawih chunga Pathian hmangaihna a sawi thinte kha ka mitthla ah a la cham reng thin.

Mal min sawm turin,
Van khuaan ro a rel;
Eden kawngkhar an hawng leh ta,
Lut ru, Zion khua a var ta.

Lawm ru, lawm ru,
Min tlantu Beram No a lo kal;
Fak ru, Haleluia, Amen.
Haleluia! min tlan turin a lokal.

Zan hla mawi ri chuan,
Lei hi a nghawr nghing a;
Edena muhil an tho ta;
Khawi nge chhun Arsi chu an ti.

Lalberte Lalber,
Lei Zion roreltu;
Engtia awm thei nge mihringah,
A hmangaih a va mak em ve!

A fak hla nawn ru,
Van mipui seraf-ten;
Tuifinriat leh khawvel zawng hi,
Zaiin khat se, Haleluia.

Friday, May 23, 2008

Grace Be With You All!

Dedicated to all my friends out there!

Grace be with you all
Michael Card

Remember to love one another
And do what is pleasing to him
Be strengthened by grace
And worship in reverence and awe
The God of peace

Grace be with you all
And may the great shepherd of the sheep
Equip you with good things for doing his will
And grace be with you all

Forget not the suffering of Jesus
And bear the disgrace that he bore
Confessing His name
For Christ is the same yesterday
Today and forever

Grace be with you all
And may the great shepherd of the sheep
Equip you with good things for doing his will
And grace be with you all

[And] Grace be with you all
And may the great shepherd of the sheep
Equip you with good things for doing his will
And grace be with you all
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